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  #11  
Old 08-30-2008, 11:32 AM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

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Originally Posted by Gheari View Post
Before I dive into my point. Hessan, your information is outdated. Researchers could find no cultural link to any tribe, thus Kennewick Man has been tested on. Kennewick man has shown quite a bit of genetic similarity to the Ainu people. It is also possible that there were multiple racial groups in the Americas.
I will concede that. The last time I read anything about the Kennewick Man, the last of the cases had yet to be heard, so DNA testing had not occured.

As for the possibility of there being multiple groups, it is heavily theorized. In addition to the three mitochondrial DNA halpotypes most common in Northern Siberian peoples being present in the peoples indigenous to the Americas, there are two more. One of these is found in East and SE Asia, as well as Oceania. The last one is X, a type found almost exclusively in Europe .
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Old 08-30-2008, 01:25 PM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

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The last one is X, a type found almost exclusively in Europe .
I thought I'd point this out. Though I don't have a URL link to any source, I've heard a theory that some early Native Americans (from what is the East coast of the USA) may have came from Gaul (modern France) or Iberia (Spain/Portugal). It is doubtful, as thats a far way to travel across the Atlantic Sea.
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Old 08-30-2008, 07:28 PM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

Because I had some time at work:

Data taken from the following text which contained the two papers.
The Origins and Past of Modern Humans - Toward reconciliation: Omoto & Tobias (ed.), Kyoto 1996, pp54-87

PEOPLING OF JAPAN INFERRED FROM MITOCHONDRIAL DNA POLYMORPHISMS IN EST ASIANS - Horai & Omoto
Jomon migration from the Asian mainland into Japan started over 12,000 years ago. There is a thought that the Yayoi migration (starting 2300 years ago) split the Jomon people into two branches - Ainu (North) and Ryukyuan (South). Genetic evidence, however, shows that the Ainu and Ryukyuans share no common sequence types.
Data taken from 51 individual Ainu:
25 genetic sequence types found.
18 were unique (67%)
Common sequence types shared between two populations: 5 (3 Japanese, 1 Korean, 1 Chinese)

HLA CLASS II ALLELES AND HAPLOTYOPES IN EAST-ASIAN POPULATIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE AINU - Tokunaga, Bannai, Imanishi, and Juji
"Although earlier anthropological observations based on morphological features had claimed that the Ainu are so-called Caucasoid, recent genetic and morphological investigations have indicated their close relationship to so-called Mongoloid populations.”
Allele frequency DRB1*1406 in Ainu (17.0%) is also shared by some Amerindian populations Zuni (9.0%), Eastern Toba (23.7%). The report also shows that DRB1*1401 is present in Ainu (20%), Buyi* (16.9%), and Spanish Gypsy+ (30.3%).
*People in south-central China north of Vietnam.
+Don’t ask. Maybe a large westward migration at some point?

Authors go on to use principle component analysis (p80) which also supports that the Ainu are descended from Upper Paleolithic populations of Northeast Asia.

From: Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan
"Origins. The Ainu have frequently been referred to as Caucasoid (Europoid) or Australoid, but such speculations are based largely upon occasional striking resemblances in facial features, beard fullness, and body hairiness. Recent intensive skeletal, anthropometric, serological, and other genetic studies demonstrate closer racial ties with some of the neighboring Tungusic, Altaic, and more especially Uralic populations of Siberia."

Perhaps Japan was first populated by two remote groups during the Jomon period. One from China and south which later intermingled with further migrations during the Yayoi becoming the Japanese and Ryukyuans. The second from Manchuria/Siberia which settled in Hokkaido and remained relatively issolated and became the Ainu.
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Old 08-31-2008, 02:54 AM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

Does your definition of Tungusic encompass the Evens, Evenks(formerly known as the tungus), Jurchens, Manchu, Negidals, Nanai, Oroch, Orok, Oroqen, Udege, Ulchs, and Xige people. Or just the Evenks? Also the term Altaic can be used very vaguely and the only Uralic peoples living (traditionally) in Eastern Siberia are the Yukaghir.
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Old 09-01-2008, 08:32 AM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

Not my defiinition.
Just quoting the encyclopedia.
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Old 09-01-2008, 09:11 AM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

I would assume that Tungusic includes the whole ethnic cluster. As for the rest... who knows?
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Old 10-17-2008, 10:22 PM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

I recently found out that in pre-Medieval Japan (around the Dark Ages of Europe, actually), there was a nation called the Emishi. Could they have been Ainu? The Emishi were not a part of the Yamato nation, and the Yamato are the people which most modern Japanese are descended from.
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Old 10-18-2008, 12:13 AM
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Default Re: The Origins of the Ainu?

The Emishi were not Japanese, no. They are thought to be related to the Ainu.
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